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Module by: E. Pennington. E-mail the authorEdited By: E. Pennington

Summary: These are exercise test questions to help build your knowledge of carbohydrate lectures. This will help expand your knowledge on the topics to maximize learning at a deeper level, build confidence and help you succeed in the course.

Table 1
1. Which of the following digestive enzymes can break complex carbohydrates into smaller carbohydrates in both the mouth and intestinal tract?
A. Glucoamylase
B. Dextrinase
C. Trehalase
D. Glycosidase
E. Amylase
Table 2
2. Which of the following complex carbohydrates can reduce the absorption of cholesterol inside the intestinal tract?
A. Glycogen
B. Soluble fibers
C. Insoluble fibers
D. Amylose
E. Amylopectin
Table 3
3. What is the metabolic function of the intestinal glycosidases?
A. Break down smaller carbohydrates into glucose, fructose and galactose.
B. Cleave hydroxyl groups of dietary complex carbohydrates molecules.
C. Digest dietary complex carbohydrate in the mouth and the stomach.
D. Join two simple sugars together to form complex carbohydrate molecules.
E. Allow passage of simple sugars inside the intestinal cells.
Table 4
4. Which of the following transporters absorb both glucose and galactose inside the renal and intestinal cells?
Table 5
5. A urine test is positive for fructose. Which of the following enzymes is deficient in fructosuria?
A. Aldolase B
B. Phosphoglucomutase
C. 4-Epimerase
D. Fructokinase
E. Galactokinase
Table 6
6. Which of the following disorders uses a stool acidity test as a diagnostic tool for infants?
A. Fructose Intolerance
B. Fructose Malabsorption
C. Fructosuria
D. Classical Galactosemia
E. Non-classical Galactosemia
Table 7
7. A patient's test results show hypoglycemia, liver failure, hyperuricemia and prolonged coagulation times. Which of the following carbohydrate disorders are consistent with these results?
A. 4-Epimerase Deficiency
B. Galactokinase Deficiency
C. Classical Galactosemia
D. Fructose Intolerance
E. Fructose Malabsorption
Table 8
8. Which of the following enzyme pairs are the two defective enzymes that share similar symptoms by forming phosphorylated intermediates in galactose metabolism disorders?
A. Lactalbumin and glycosyltransferases
B. Fructokinase and aldose reductase
C. Galactosyltransferase and phosphoglutamase
D. Galactokinase and aldolase B
E. Galactose 1-phosphate uridyltransferase and 4-epimerase
Table 9
9. Which of the following statements about galactosemic and diabetic cataracts is INCORRECT?
A. A newborn screening test helps diagnose the defective enzyme in galactose metabolism.
B. Galactitol is synthesized via the polyol pathway using excess fructose from blood.
C. Sorbitol is synthesized via the polyol pathway using excess glucose from blood.
D. Accumulation of galactitol in the lens of eyes can cause developmental delays in infants.
E. Diabetic patients develop cataracts due to accumulation of sorbitol in the lens of the eyes.
Table 10
10. Which of the following molecules is a byproduct of anaerobic glycolysis in the red blood cells and used for energy by the renal cells?
A. Gases
B. Short fatty acids
C. Vitamin K
D. Lactate
E. Glucose
Table 11
11. What is the metabolic function of the two subunits of lactose synthase?
A. Lactalbumin synthesizes prolactin and galactosyltransferase synthesizes cortisol.
B. Lactalbumin synthesizes lactoglobulin and glycosyltransferase synthesizes casein.
C. Lactalbumin increases the catalytic rate of galactosyltransferase during the synthesis of lactose.
D. Lactalbumin synthesizes colostrum and galactosyltransferase synthesizes mature milk.
E. Lactalbumin converts glucose to galactose and galactosyltransferase degrades galactose.
Table 12
12. Which of the following enzymes is responsible for the rapid drug clearance of barbiturates?
A. Debranching enzyme
B. Glycogen synthase
C. Aldose reductase
D. Lactose synthase
E. UDP-glucuronyltransferase
Table 13
13. Which of the following subclasses of glycolipids are responsible for the ABO groups in the membranes of the red blood cells?
A. Galactocerebrosides
B. Glucocerebrosides
C. Sulfatides
D. Gangliosides
E. Globosides
Table 14
14. Which of the following amino acids is the residue for the formation of N-glycosidic bonds in glycoproteins?
A. Asparagine
B. Aspartate
C. Serine
D. Threonine
E. Hydroxylysine
Table 15
15. Why are glycosylated proteins clinically important for diabetic patients only?
A. They form surface receptors for connection and neural communication between cells.
B. They are important components of the coagulation cascade and in diagnosing coagulation disorders.
C. They provide lubrication for cell surfaces and protection against pathogenic bacteria.
D. They cause thickening of blood vessels impairing delivery of nutrients and gas exchange in the cells.
E. They can function either as hormones or enzymes for metabolic and reproductive function.
Table 16
16. Which of the following hormones regulate glycogenesis?
A. Insulin
B. Glucagon
C. Epinephrine
D. Cortisol
E. Secretin
Table 17
17. A patient suffers from cramps and fatigue every time he exercises. Which of the following defective enzymes can affect the breakdown of glycogen in the muscles?
A. Debranching enzyme
B. Glycogen phosphorylase
C. Glycogen synthase
D. Branching enzyme
E. Glucose-6-phosphatase
Table 18
18. Which of the following hormones facilitates the breakdown of glycogen in muscle?
A. Insulin
B. Glucagon
C. Cortisol
D. Epinephrine
E. Norepinephrine
Table 19
19. Which of the following statements about glycogenolysis in the liver is INCORRECT?
A. Cortisol stimulates gluconeogenesis and suppresses the translocation of GLUT4.
B. Epinephrine binding to both alpha and beta receptors stimulates glycogenolysis.
C. Epinephrine binding to beta receptors also enhances the effects of glucagon.
D. Epinephrine binding to alpha receptors also stimulates gluconeogenesis.
E. Glucagon stimulates glycogenolysis via inositol-phospholipid signaling pathway.
Table 20
20. Which of the following is a compensatory mechanism in the brain to help increase the uptake of sugar to the neurons?
A. Arrangement of neurofibrillary tangles in helices and filaments
B. Increased phosphorylation of tau
C. Decreased glycosylation of proteins
D. Increased GLUT2 transporters in astrocytes
E. Decreased GLUT1 and GLUT3 transporters
Table 21
21. Which of the following glucose transporters is regulated by HIF-1 in the brain?
Table 22
22. Which of the following glucose transporters is the insulin-sensitive transporter found in muscle and fat cells?

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