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Comprehensive III

Module by: E. Pennington. E-mail the author

Summary: Final exam for all Carbohydrate and Nitrogen lectures.

Table 1
1. For what purpose will the kidneys excrete base as bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)?
A. Reduce H+ ions concentration in the extracellular fluid (ECF)
B. Raise H+ ions concentration in the extracellular fluid (ECF)
C. Increase H+ ions excretion
D. Reabsorb more bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)
E. Generate new bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)

Match the amino acid mutation on the beta globin with the corresponding hemoglobinopathy:

Table 2
2. ____ Valine replaces glutamic acid
3. ____ Lysine replaces glutamic acid
4. ____ Valine replaces glutamic acid on one chain while lysine replaces glutamic acid on the other chain

Table 3
A. Hb C
B. Hb S
C. Hb SC

Table 4
5. Which of the following statements is the LEAST ACCURATE about DNA polymerase delta?
A. This enzyme starts adding polynucleotides to the newly synthesized DNA chain after an RNA-DNA primer is formed on both the leading and lagging strands.
B. This enzyme can synthesize about 200 nucleotides of DNA in the lagging strand before it reaches the RNA primer of the next Okazaki fragment.
C. This enzymes continuously add polynucleotides to the newly synthesize DNA in the leading strand.
D. This enzyme is also considered a 3' to 5' exonuclease that proofreads the newly synthesize DNA to detect and repair DNA changes.
E. This enzyme has the capabilities of an RNA polymerase and completes DNA synthesis at the end of the chromosomes.
Table 5
6. In which DNA strand are Okazaki fragments MOST LIKELY to be found during DNA replication?
A. Leading
B. Lagging
C. Major groove
D. Minor groove
E. RNA primer
Table 6
7. In the picture below, abnormal red blood cells are microcytic and hypochromic.graphics1.pngThis picture shows the result of a disorder affecting the heme synthesis and the Fe-S centers of the proteins in the electron transport chain. Which of the following disorders is MOST LIKELY to cause this appearance on a peripheral blood smear?
A. Hypoxia
B. Cyanide poisoning
C. Malaria
D. Iron deficiency
E. Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Table 7
8. Which of the following statements about oxidative phosphorylation is FALSE?
A. One full turn of the c subunits of the F0 pore releases a total of twelve protons into the mitochondrial matrix.
B. Energy from the electrochemical gradient of the electron transport chain and rotation of the asymmetric shaft of the F0 pore alters the shape of binding sites of the F1 headpiece.
C. One full term of the binding sites in the F1 headpiece releases twelve ATP molecules.
D. The three binding sites in the F1 headpiece facilitates: binding of ADP + Pi, as well as synthesis and release of ATP.
E. The body's increased needs for energy during strenuous exercise ties together oxidative phosphorylation to the electron transport chain and the tricarboxylic acid pathways.
Table 8
9. Which of the following statements is LEAST CORRECT about the process of elongation during protein synthesis?
A. When the P site in the 60S subunit is bound, an aminoacyl-tRNA must have a complimentary and antiparallel anticodon to the next mRNA codon in order to bind the A site in the 60S subunit.
B. Peptidyltransferase joins the amino acids attached to tRNAs in both the P and A sites of the 60S subunit.
C. The aminoacyl-tRNA on A site contains the growing polpeptide chain and moves to the P site when the uncharged tRNA on the P site is released.
D. The process of forming aminoacyl-tRNA complexes, peptide bonds and translocation of the growing protein chain is repeated numerous times until a stop codon is reached.
E. The growing polypeptide chains forms only primary and secondary structures once outside the tunnel of the 80S ribosome.
Table 9
10. Which of the following molecules is MOST LIKELY to base pair with Uracil in RNA secondary or tertiary structures?
A. Adenosine
B. Guanine
C. Cytosine
D. Thymine
E. Uracil
Table 10
11. Which of the following chemicals is LESS LIKELY to cause damage to the central nervous system or cancer by inhibiting alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase in the tricarboxylic acid pathway?
A. Mercury
B. Arsenate (AsO4-3)
C. Arsenite (AsO3-3)
D. NADH
Table 11
12. Which of the following statements about the urea cycle is INACCURATE?
A. The rate of the urea cycle increases as amino acids are degraded.
B. The first source of the nitrogen for the cycle is in the form of NH4+.
C. Aspartate provides the second source of nitrogen for the cycle as NH2.
D. Brain and muscle tissue provides nitrogen in the form of glutamine.
E. Bacteria produce NH4+, which travels to the liver via the hepatic portal vein.

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