Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to collection information

OpenStax-CNX

You are here: Home » Content » College Physics » Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement
Content endorsed by: OpenStax College

Navigation

Table of Contents

Lenses

What is a lens?

Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags? tag icon

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

This content is ...

Endorsed by Endorsed (What does "Endorsed by" mean?)

This content has been endorsed by the organizations listed. Click each link for a list of all content endorsed by the organization.
  • OpenStax College

    This collection is included in aLens by: OpenStax College

    Click the "OpenStax College" link to see all content they endorse.

Affiliated with (What does "Affiliated with" mean?)

This content is either by members of the organizations listed or about topics related to the organizations listed. Click each link to see a list of all content affiliated with the organization.
  • Pierpont C & TC display tagshide tags

    This module is included inLens: Pierpont Community & Technical College's Lens
    By: Pierpont Community & Technical CollegeAs a part of collection: "College Physics -- HLCA 1104"

    Click the "Pierpont C & TC" link to see all content affiliated with them.

    Click the tag icon tag icon to display tags associated with this content.

  • Featured Content display tagshide tags

    This collection is included inLens: Connexions Featured Content
    By: Connexions

    Comments:

    "This introductory, algebra-based, two-semester college physics book is grounded with real-world examples, illustrations, and explanations to help students grasp key, fundamental physics concepts. […]"

    Click the "Featured Content" link to see all content affiliated with them.

    Click the tag icon tag icon to display tags associated with this content.

Recently Viewed

This feature requires Javascript to be enabled.

Tags

(What is a tag?)

These tags come from the endorsement, affiliation, and other lenses that include this content.
 

Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement

Module by: OpenStax College. E-mail the author

Summary:

  • Define gauge pressure and absolute pressure.
  • Understand the working of aneroid and open-tube barometers.

If you limp into a gas station with a nearly flat tire, you will notice the tire gauge on the airline reads nearly zero when you begin to fill it. In fact, if there were a gaping hole in your tire, the gauge would read zero, even though atmospheric pressure exists in the tire. Why does the gauge read zero? There is no mystery here. Tire gauges are simply designed to read zero at atmospheric pressure and positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric.

Similarly, atmospheric pressure adds to blood pressure in every part of the circulatory system. (As noted in Pascal’s Principle, the total pressure in a fluid is the sum of the pressures from different sources—here, the heart and the atmosphere.) But atmospheric pressure has no net effect on blood flow since it adds to the pressure coming out of the heart and going back into it, too. What is important is how much greater blood pressure is than atmospheric pressure. Blood pressure measurements, like tire pressures, are thus made relative to atmospheric pressure.

In brief, it is very common for pressure gauges to ignore atmospheric pressure—that is, to read zero at atmospheric pressure. We therefore define gauge pressure to be the pressure relative to atmospheric pressure. Gauge pressure is positive for pressures above atmospheric pressure, and negative for pressures below it.

Gauge Pressure:

Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to atmospheric pressure. Gauge pressure is positive for pressures above atmospheric pressure, and negative for pressures below it.

In fact, atmospheric pressure does add to the pressure in any fluid not enclosed in a rigid container. This happens because of Pascal’s principle. The total pressure, or absolute pressure, is thus the sum of gauge pressure and atmospheric pressure: Pabs=Pg+PatmPabs=Pg+Patm size 12{P rSub { size 8{"abs"} } =P rSub { size 8{g} } +P rSub { size 8{"atm"} } } {} where PabsPabs size 12{P rSub { size 8{"abs"} } } {} is absolute pressure, PgPg size 12{P rSub { size 8{g} } } {} is gauge pressure, and PatmPatm size 12{P rSub { size 8{"atm"} } } {} is atmospheric pressure. For example, if your tire gauge reads 34 psi (pounds per square inch), then the absolute pressure is 34 psi plus 14.7 psi (PatmPatm size 12{P rSub { size 8{"atm"} } } {} in psi), or 48.7 psi (equivalent to 336 kPa).

Absolute Pressure:

Absolute pressure is the sum of gauge pressure and atmospheric pressure.

For reasons we will explore later, in most cases the absolute pressure in fluids cannot be negative. Fluids push rather than pull, so the smallest absolute pressure is zero. (A negative absolute pressure is a pull.) Thus the smallest possible gauge pressure is Pg=PatmPg=Patm size 12{P rSub { size 8{g} } = - P rSub { size 8{"atm"} } } {} (this makes PabsPabs size 12{P rSub { size 8{"abs"} } } {} zero). There is no theoretical limit to how large a gauge pressure can be.

There are a host of devices for measuring pressure, ranging from tire gauges to blood pressure cuffs. Pascal’s principle is of major importance in these devices. The undiminished transmission of pressure through a fluid allows precise remote sensing of pressures. Remote sensing is often more convenient than putting a measuring device into a system, such as a person’s artery.

Figure 1 shows one of the many types of mechanical pressure gauges in use today. In all mechanical pressure gauges, pressure results in a force that is converted (or transduced) into some type of readout.

Figure 1: This aneroid gauge utilizes flexible bellows connected to a mechanical indicator to measure pressure.
Aneroid gauge measures pressure using a bellows and spring arrangement connected to the pointer that points to a calibrated scale.

An entire class of gauges uses the property that pressure due to the weight of a fluid is given by P=hρg.P=hρg. size 12{P=hρg "." } {} Consider the U-shaped tube shown in Figure 2, for example. This simple tube is called a manometer. In Figure 2(a), both sides of the tube are open to the atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure therefore pushes down on each side equally so its effect cancels. If the fluid is deeper on one side, there is a greater pressure on the deeper side, and the fluid flows away from that side until the depths are equal.

Let us examine how a manometer is used to measure pressure. Suppose one side of the U-tube is connected to some source of pressure PabsPabs size 12{P rSub { size 8{"abs"} } } {} such as the toy balloon in Figure 2(b) or the vacuum-packed peanut jar shown in Figure 2(c). Pressure is transmitted undiminished to the manometer, and the fluid levels are no longer equal. In Figure 2(b), PabsPabs size 12{P rSub { size 8{"abs"} } } {} is greater than atmospheric pressure, whereas in Figure 2(c), PabsPabs size 12{P rSub { size 8{"abs"} } } {} is less than atmospheric pressure. In both cases, PabsPabs size 12{P rSub { size 8{"abs"} } } {} differs from atmospheric pressure by an amount hρghρg size 12{hρg} {}, where ρρ size 12{ρ} {} is the density of the fluid in the manometer. In Figure 2(b), PabsPabs size 12{P rSub { size 8{"abs"} } } {} can support a column of fluid of height hh size 12{h} {}, and so it must exert a pressure hρghρg size 12{hρg} {} greater than atmospheric pressure (the gauge pressure PgPg size 12{P rSub { size 8{g} } } {} is positive). In Figure 2(c), atmospheric pressure can support a column of fluid of height hh size 12{h} {}, and so PabsPabs size 12{P rSub { size 8{"abs"} } } {} is less than atmospheric pressure by an amount hρghρg size 12{hρg} {} (the gauge pressure PgPg size 12{P rSub { size 8{g} } } {} is negative). A manometer with one side open to the atmosphere is an ideal device for measuring gauge pressures. The gauge pressure is Pg=hρgPg=hρg size 12{P rSub { size 8{g} } =hρg} {} and is found by measuring hh size 12{h} {}.

Figure 2: An open-tube manometer has one side open to the atmosphere. (a) Fluid depth must be the same on both sides, or the pressure each side exerts at the bottom will be unequal and there will be flow from the deeper side. (b) A positive gauge pressure Pg=hρgPg=hρg size 12{P rSub { size 8{g} } =hρg} {} transmitted to one side of the manometer can support a column of fluid of height hh size 12{h} {}. (c) Similarly, atmospheric pressure is greater than a negative gauge pressure PgPg size 12{P rSub { size 8{g} } } {} by an amount hρghρg size 12{hρg} {}. The jar’s rigidity prevents atmospheric pressure from being transmitted to the peanuts.
Open-tube manometers have U-shaped tubes and one end is always open. When open to atmosphere, fluid at both ends will be the same, as in the first figure. When pressure at one end is greater, the fluid level will go down on that end, as in the second figure. If the pressure at one end is less, then the height of the fluid column on that side will increase, as in the third figure.

Mercury manometers are often used to measure arterial blood pressure. An inflatable cuff is placed on the upper arm as shown in Figure 3. By squeezing the bulb, the person making the measurement exerts pressure, which is transmitted undiminished to both the main artery in the arm and the manometer. When this applied pressure exceeds blood pressure, blood flow below the cuff is cut off. The person making the measurement then slowly lowers the applied pressure and listens for blood flow to resume. Blood pressure pulsates because of the pumping action of the heart, reaching a maximum, called systolic pressure, and a minimum, called diastolic pressure, with each heartbeat. Systolic pressure is measured by noting the value of hh size 12{h} {} when blood flow first begins as cuff pressure is lowered. Diastolic pressure is measured by noting hh size 12{h} {} when blood flows without interruption. The typical blood pressure of a young adult raises the mercury to a height of 120 mm at systolic and 80 mm at diastolic. This is commonly quoted as 120 over 80, or 120/80. The first pressure is representative of the maximum output of the heart; the second is due to the elasticity of the arteries in maintaining the pressure between beats. The density of the mercury fluid in the manometer is 13.6 times greater than water, so the height of the fluid will be 1/13.6 of that in a water manometer. This reduced height can make measurements difficult, so mercury manometers are used to measure larger pressures, such as blood pressure. The density of mercury is such that 1.0 mm Hg=133Pa1.0 mm Hg=133Pa.

Systolic Pressure:

Systolic pressure is the maximum blood pressure.

Diastolic Pressure:

Diastolic pressure is the minimum blood pressure.

Figure 3: In routine blood pressure measurements, an inflatable cuff is placed on the upper arm at the same level as the heart. Blood flow is detected just below the cuff, and corresponding pressures are transmitted to a mercury-filled manometer. (credit: U.S. Army photo by Spc. Micah E. Clare\4TH BCT)
U.S. Army Spc. Monica Brown takes a soldier's blood pressure reading at the hospital on Forward Operating Base Salerno, Afghanistan, March 10, 2008.

Example 1: Calculating Height of IV Bag: Blood Pressure and Intravenous Infusions

Intravenous infusions are usually made with the help of the gravitational force. Assuming that the density of the fluid being administered is 1.00 g/ml, at what height should the IV bag be placed above the entry point so that the fluid just enters the vein if the blood pressure in the vein is 18 mm Hg above atmospheric pressure? Assume that the IV bag is collapsible.

Strategy for (a)

For the fluid to just enter the vein, its pressure at entry must exceed the blood pressure in the vein (18 mm Hg above atmospheric pressure). We therefore need to find the height of fluid that corresponds to this gauge pressure.

Solution

We first need to convert the pressure into SI units. Since 1.0 mm Hg=133 Pa1.0 mm Hg=133 Pa,

P = 18 mm Hg × 133 Pa 1.0 mm Hg = 2400 Pa . P = 18 mm Hg × 133 Pa 1.0 mm Hg = 2400 Pa . size 12{P="18"`"mm"`"Hg" times { {"133"`"Pa"} over {1 "." 0`"mm"`"Hg"} } ="2400"`"Pa" "." } {}
(1)

Rearranging Pg=hρgPg=hρg size 12{P rSub { size 8{g} } =hρg} {} for hh size 12{h} {} gives h=Pgρgh=Pgρg size 12{h= { {P rSub { size 8{g} } } over {ρg} } } {}. Substituting known values into this equation gives

h = 2400 N /m 2 1 . 0 × 10 3 kg/m 3 9 . 80 m/s 2 = 0.24 m. h = 2400 N /m 2 1 . 0 × 10 3 kg/m 3 9 . 80 m/s 2 = 0.24 m. alignl { stack { size 12{h= { {"2400"`"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } over { left (1 "." 0 times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } `"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } right ) left (9 "." "80"`"m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } right )} } } {} # " "=" 0" "." "24"`m "." {} } } {}
(2)

Discussion

The IV bag must be placed at 0.24 m above the entry point into the arm for the fluid to just enter the arm. Generally, IV bags are placed higher than this. You may have noticed that the bags used for blood collection are placed below the donor to allow blood to flow easily from the arm to the bag, which is the opposite direction of flow than required in the example presented here.

A barometer is a device that measures atmospheric pressure. A mercury barometer is shown in Figure 4. This device measures atmospheric pressure, rather than gauge pressure, because there is a nearly pure vacuum above the mercury in the tube. The height of the mercury is such that hρg=Patmhρg=Patm size 12{hρg=P rSub { size 8{"atm"} } } {}. When atmospheric pressure varies, the mercury rises or falls, giving important clues to weather forecasters. The barometer can also be used as an altimeter, since average atmospheric pressure varies with altitude. Mercury barometers and manometers are so common that units of mm Hg are often quoted for atmospheric pressure and blood pressures. Table 1 gives conversion factors for some of the more commonly used units of pressure.

Figure 4: A mercury barometer measures atmospheric pressure. The pressure due to the mercury’s weight, hρghρg size 12{hρg} {}, equals atmospheric pressure. The atmosphere is able to force mercury in the tube to a height hh size 12{h} {} because the pressure above the mercury is zero.
Mercury barometer has an evacuated glass tube inverted and placed in the mercury container. The height of the mercury column in the inverted tube is determined by the atmospheric pressure.
Table 1: Conversion Factors for Various Pressure Units
Conversion to N/m2 (Pa) Conversion from atm
1.0 atm = 1 . 013 × 10 5 N/m 2 1.0 atm = 1 . 013 × 10 5 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." 0`"atm"=1 "." "013" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} 1.0 atm = 1 . 013 × 10 5 N/m 2 1.0 atm = 1 . 013 × 10 5 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." 0`"atm"=1 "." "013" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
1.0 dyne/cm 2 = 0 . 10 N/m 2 1.0 dyne/cm 2 = 0 . 10 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." 0`"dyne/cm" rSup { size 8{2} } =0 "." "10"`"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} 1 . 0 atm = 1 . 013 × 10 6 dyne/cm 2 1 . 0 atm = 1 . 013 × 10 6 dyne/cm 2 size 12{1 "." 0`"atm"=1 "." "013" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } `"dyne/cm" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
1 . 0 kg/cm 2 = 9 . 8 × 10 4 N/m 2 1 . 0 kg/cm 2 = 9 . 8 × 10 4 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." 0`"kg/cm" rSup { size 8{2} } =9 "." 8 times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} 1 . 0 atm = 1 . 013 kg/cm 2 1 . 0 atm = 1 . 013 kg/cm 2 size 12{1 "." 0`"atm"=1 "." "013"`"kg/cm" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
1 . 0 lb/in . 2 = 6 . 90 × 10 3 N/m 2 1 . 0 lb/in . 2 = 6 . 90 × 10 3 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." 0`"lb/in" "." rSup { size 8{2} } =6 "." "90" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} 1 . 0 atm = 14 . 7 lb/in . 2 1 . 0 atm = 14 . 7 lb/in . 2 size 12{1 "." 0`"atm"="14" "." 7`"lb/in" "." rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
1.0 mm Hg = 133 N/m 2 1.0 mm Hg = 133 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." 0`"mm"`"Hg"="133"`"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} 1 . 0 atm = 760 mm Hg 1 . 0 atm = 760 mm Hg size 12{1 "." 0`"atm"="760"`"mm"`"Hg"} {}
1 . 0 cm Hg = 1 . 33 × 10 3 N/m 2 1 . 0 cm Hg = 1 . 33 × 10 3 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." 0`"cm"`"Hg"=1 "." "33" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} 1 . 0 atm = 76 . 0 cm Hg 1 . 0 atm = 76 . 0 cm Hg size 12{1 "." 0`"atm"="76" "." 0`"cm"`"Hg"} {}
1 . 0 cm water = 98 . 1 N/m 2 1 . 0 cm water = 98 . 1 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." 0`"cm"`"water"="98" "." 1`"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} 1 . 0 atm = 1 . 03 × 10 3 cm water 1 . 0 atm = 1 . 03 × 10 3 cm water size 12{1 "." 0`"atm"=1 "." "03" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } `"cm"`"water"} {}
1.0 bar = 1 . 000 × 10 5 N/m 2 1.0 bar = 1 . 000 × 10 5 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." 0`"bar"=1 "." "000" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} 1 . 0 atm = 1.013 bar 1 . 0 atm = 1.013 bar size 12{1 "." 0`"atm"=1 "." "013"`"bar"} {}
1.0 millibar = 1 . 000 × 10 2 N/m 2 1.0 millibar = 1 . 000 × 10 2 N/m 2 size 12{1 "." 0`"millibar"=1 "." "000" times "10" rSup { size 8{2} } `"N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} 1.0 atm = 1013 millibar 1.0 atm = 1013 millibar

Section Summary

  • Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to atmospheric pressure.
  • Absolute pressure is the sum of gauge pressure and atmospheric pressure.
  • Aneroid gauge measures pressure using a bellows-and-spring arrangement connected to the pointer of a calibrated scale.
  • Open-tube manometers have U-shaped tubes and one end is always open. It is used to measure pressure.
  • A mercury barometer is a device that measures atmospheric pressure.

Conceptual Questions

Exercise 1

Explain why the fluid reaches equal levels on either side of a manometer if both sides are open to the atmosphere, even if the tubes are of different diameters.

Exercise 2

Figure 3 shows how a common measurement of arterial blood pressure is made. Is there any effect on the measured pressure if the manometer is lowered? What is the effect of raising the arm above the shoulder? What is the effect of placing the cuff on the upper leg with the person standing? Explain your answers in terms of pressure created by the weight of a fluid.

Exercise 3

Considering the magnitude of typical arterial blood pressures, why are mercury rather than water manometers used for these measurements?

Problems & Exercises

Exercise 1

Find the gauge and absolute pressures in the balloon and peanut jar shown in Figure 2, assuming the manometer connected to the balloon uses water whereas the manometer connected to the jar contains mercury. Express in units of centimeters of water for the balloon and millimeters of mercury for the jar, taking h=0.0500 mh=0.0500 m size 12{h=0 "." "0500"`m} {} for each.

Solution

Balloon:

P g = 5.00 cm H 2 O, P abs = 1.035 × 10 3 cm H 2 O. P g = 5.00 cm H 2 O, P abs = 1.035 × 10 3 cm H 2 O. alignl { stack { size 12{P rSub { size 8{g} } =5 "." "00"`"cm"`H rSub { size 8{2} } "O,"} {} # P rSub { size 8{"abs"} } =1 "." "035" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } `"cm"`H rSub { size 8{2} } O "." {} } } {}

Jar:

P g = 50.0 mm Hg , P abs = 710 mm Hg. P g = 50.0 mm Hg , P abs = 710 mm Hg. alignl { stack { size 12{P rSub { size 8{g} } = - "50" "." 0`"mm"`"Hg,"} {} # P rSub { size 8{"abs"} } ="710"`"mm"`"Hg" "." {} } } {}

Exercise 2

(a) Convert normal blood pressure readings of 120 over 80 mm Hg to newtons per meter squared using the relationship for pressure due to the weight of a fluid (P=hρg)(P=hρg) size 12{ \( P=hρg \) } {} rather than a conversion factor. (b) Discuss why blood pressures for an infant could be smaller than those for an adult. Specifically, consider the smaller height to which blood must be pumped.

Exercise 3

How tall must a water-filled manometer be to measure blood pressures as high as 300 mm Hg?

Solution

4.08 m

Exercise 4

Pressure cookers have been around for more than 300 years, although their use has strongly declined in recent years (early models had a nasty habit of exploding). How much force must the latches holding the lid onto a pressure cooker be able to withstand if the circular lid is 25.0 cm25.0 cm size 12{"25" "." 0`"cm"} {} in diameter and the gauge pressure inside is 300 atm? Neglect the weight of the lid.

Exercise 5

Suppose you measure a standing person’s blood pressure by placing the cuff on his leg 0.500 m below the heart. Calculate the pressure you would observe (in units of mm Hg) if the pressure at the heart were 120 over 80 mm Hg. Assume that there is no loss of pressure due to resistance in the circulatory system (a reasonable assumption, since major arteries are large).

Solution

ΔP = 38.7 mm Hg, Leg blood pressure = 159 119 . ΔP = 38.7 mm Hg, Leg blood pressure = 159 119 . alignl { stack { size 12{ΔP="38" "." 7`"mm"`"Hg,"} {} # size 12{"Leg"`"blood"`"pressure"= { {"159"} over {"119"} } "." } {} } } {}

Exercise 6

A submarine is stranded on the bottom of the ocean with its hatch 25.0 m below the surface. Calculate the force needed to open the hatch from the inside, given it is circular and 0.450 m in diameter. Air pressure inside the submarine is 1.00 atm.

Exercise 7

Assuming bicycle tires are perfectly flexible and support the weight of bicycle and rider by pressure alone, calculate the total area of the tires in contact with the ground. The bicycle plus rider has a mass of 80.0 kg, and the gauge pressure in the tires is 3.50×105Pa3.50×105Pa size 12{3 "." "50" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } `"Pa"} {}.

Solution

22 . 4 cm 2 22 . 4 cm 2 size 12{"22" "." 4`"cm" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}

Glossary

absolute pressure:
the sum of gauge pressure and atmospheric pressure
diastolic pressure:
the minimum blood pressure in the artery
gauge pressure:
the pressure relative to atmospheric pressure
systolic pressure:
the maximum blood pressure in the artery

Collection Navigation

Content actions

Download module as:

Add:

Collection to:

My Favorites (?)

'My Favorites' is a special kind of lens which you can use to bookmark modules and collections. 'My Favorites' can only be seen by you, and collections saved in 'My Favorites' can remember the last module you were on. You need an account to use 'My Favorites'.

| A lens I own (?)

Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags? tag icon

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

| External bookmarks

Module to:

My Favorites (?)

'My Favorites' is a special kind of lens which you can use to bookmark modules and collections. 'My Favorites' can only be seen by you, and collections saved in 'My Favorites' can remember the last module you were on. You need an account to use 'My Favorites'.

| A lens I own (?)

Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags? tag icon

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

| External bookmarks