The magnetic force on a moving charge is one of the most fundamental known. Magnetic force is as important as the electrostatic or Coulomb force. Yet the magnetic force is more complex, in both the number of factors that affects it and in its direction, than the relatively simple Coulomb force. The magnitude of the magnetic force FF size 12{F} {} on a charge qq size 12{q} {} moving at a speed vv size 12{v} {} in a magnetic field of strength BB size 12{B} {} is given by

F=qvBsinθ,F=qvBsinθ, size 12{F= ital "qvB""sin"θ} {}

(1)where θθ size 12{θ} {} is the angle between the directions of vv and B.B. size 12{B} {} This force is often called the Lorentz force. In fact, this is how we define the magnetic field strength BB size 12{B} {}—in terms of the force on a charged particle moving in a magnetic field. The SI unit for magnetic field strength BB size 12{B} {} is called the tesla (T) after the eccentric but brilliant inventor Nikola Tesla (1856–1943). To determine how the tesla relates to other SI units, we solve F=qvBsinθF=qvBsinθ size 12{F= ital "qvB""sin"θ} {} for BB size 12{B} {}.

B=FqvsinθB=Fqvsinθ size 12{B= { {F} over { ital "qv""sin"θ} } } {}

(2)Because
sin
θ
sin
θ
size 12{θ} {}
is unitless, the tesla is

1 T
=
1 N
C
⋅
m/s
=
1 N
A
⋅
m
1 T
=
1 N
C
⋅
m/s
=
1 N
A
⋅
m
size 12{"1 T"= { {"1 N"} over {C cdot "m/s"} } = { {1" N"} over {A cdot m} } } {}

(3)(note that C/s = A).

Another smaller unit, called the gauss (G), where 1 G=10−4T1 G=10−4T size 12{1`G="10" rSup { size 8{ - 4} } `T} {}, is sometimes used. The strongest permanent magnets have fields near 2 T; superconducting electromagnets may attain 10 T or more. The Earth’s magnetic field on its surface is only about 5×10−5T5×10−5T size 12{5 times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 5} } `T} {}, or 0.5 G.

The *direction* of the magnetic force FF size 12{F} {} is perpendicular to the plane formed by vv size 12{v} {} and BB, as determined by the right hand rule 1 (or RHR-1), which is illustrated in Figure 1. RHR-1 states that, to determine the direction of the magnetic force on a positive moving charge, you point the thumb of the right hand in the direction of vv, the fingers in the direction of BB, and a perpendicular to the palm points in the direction of FF. One way to remember this is that there is one velocity, and so the thumb represents it. There are many field lines, and so the fingers represent them. The force is in the direction you would push with your palm. The force on a negative charge is in exactly the opposite direction to that on a positive charge.

There is no magnetic force on static charges. However, there is a magnetic force on moving charges. When charges are stationary, their electric fields do not affect magnets. But, when charges move, they produce magnetic fields that exert forces on other magnets. When there is relative motion, a connection between electric and magnetic fields emerges—each affects the other.

With the exception of compasses, you seldom see or personally experience forces due to the Earth’s small magnetic field. To illustrate this, suppose that in a physics lab you rub a glass rod with silk, placing a 20-nC positive charge on it. Calculate the force on the rod due to the Earth’s magnetic field, if you throw it with a horizontal velocity of 10 m/s due west in a place where the Earth’s field is due north parallel to the ground. (The direction of the force is determined with right hand rule 1 as shown in Figure 2.)

*Strategy*

We are given the charge, its velocity, and the magnetic field strength and direction. We can thus use the equation F=qvBsinθF=qvBsinθ size 12{F= ital "qvB""sin"θ} {} to find the force.

*Solution*

The magnetic force is

F=qvbsinθ.F=qvbsinθ. size 12{F= ital "qvb""sin"θ} {}

(4)We see that sinθ=1sinθ=1 size 12{"sin"θ=1} {}, since the angle between the velocity and the direction of the field is 90º90º size 12{"90" rSup { size 8{ circ } } } {}. Entering the other given quantities yields

F
=
20
×
10
–9
C
10 m/s
5
×
10
–5
T
=
1
×
10
–11
C
⋅
m/s
N
C
⋅
m/s
=
1
×
10
–11
N.
F
=
20
×
10
–9
C
10 m/s
5
×
10
–5
T
=
1
×
10
–11
C
⋅
m/s
N
C
⋅
m/s
=
1
×
10
–11
N.
alignl { stack {
size 12{F= left ("20" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 9 } } `C right ) left ("10"`"m/s" right ) left (5 times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 5} } `T right )} {} #
" "=1 times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "11"} } ` left (C cdot "m/s" right ) left ( { {N} over {C cdot "m/s"} } right )=1 times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "11"} } `N "." {}
} } {}

(5)*Discussion*

This force is completely negligible on any macroscopic object, consistent with experience. (It is calculated to only one digit, since the Earth’s field varies with location and is given to only one digit.) The Earth’s magnetic field, however, does produce very important effects, particularly on submicroscopic particles. Some of these are explored in Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications.