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Namespace pattern

Module by: Hannes Hirzel. E-mail the author

Summary: This modules explains how to avoid having too many global variables in JavaScript programs. This is accomplished by using the 'namespace pattern'. This pattern is used in many libraries.


In this module a "pattern" is described which explains how to reduce the number of identifiers in JavaScript on the global scope level. This is useful if you want to write a library and avoid a clash of names with the user of your library.

The problem

Let us consider the following code in JavaScript.

var n=3;
var x=0;
var text="abc";

var open = function(anArg) {
    console.log('within the "open" function');
    console.log("text=" + text);
    console.log("n=" + n);

var doCalculation = function(i,j) {
    console.log('within doCalculation function');


When we run the code in a web console or better in a scratch pad we get the following result

[07:39:08.141] within open function 
[07:39:08.145] text=abc 
[07:39:08.148] n=3 

The problem is that we now have five identifier on the global level.


  • n
  • x
  • text
  • open
  • doCalculation
If we add another JavaScript library it is likely that it might contain identifiers with the same name. This leads to a clash of names.

We want to keep the number of identifiers declared at a global level to a minimum.


We can reduce the number of global identifiers to one. This will be the namespace identifier. We declare an object NSP1 to be an empty JavaScript object.

var NSP1 = {};

Then we add our variable and function declarations as properties and methods of NSP1.

NSP1.text="abc"; = function(anArg) {
    console.log('within open function');
    console.log("text=" + this.text);
    console.log("n=" + this.n);

NSP1.doCalculation = function(i,j) {
    console.log('within doCalculation function');


We have successfully reduced the number of global variables from 5 to 1. The only downside is that we have to prefix the reference to the variables with NSP1.


Axel Rauschmayer, Patterns for modules and namespaces in JavaScript

Stoyan Stefanov, JavaScript Patterns, O'Reilly 2010, 'Namespace pattern', p. 87

Avoid globals (Opera Developer Article)

Addy Osmani, JavaScript patterns; Singleton pattern

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