Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to collection information

Connexions

You are here: Home » Content » Physical Methods in Chemistry and Nano Science » Lanthanide Shift Reagents

Navigation

Table of Contents

Lenses

What is a lens?

Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags? tag icon

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

This content is ...

Affiliated with (What does "Affiliated with" mean?)

This content is either by members of the organizations listed or about topics related to the organizations listed. Click each link to see a list of all content affiliated with the organization.
  • Rice Digital Scholarship

    This collection is included in aLens by: Digital Scholarship at Rice University

    Click the "Rice Digital Scholarship" link to see all content affiliated with them.

Recently Viewed

This feature requires Javascript to be enabled.
 

Lanthanide Shift Reagents

Module by: Mayra Hernandez Rivera, Andrew R. Barron. E-mail the authorsEdited By: Andrew R. Barron

Introduction

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) is the most powerful tool for organic and organometallic compound determination. Even structures can be determined just using this technique. In general NMR gives information about the number of magnetically distinct atoms of the specific nuclei under study, as well as information regarding the nature of the immediate environment surrounding each nuclei. Because hydrogen and carbon are the major components of organic and organometallic compounds, proton (1H) NMR and carbon-13 (13C) NMR are the most useful nuclei to observe.

Not all the protons experience resonance at the same frequency in a 1H NMR, and thus it is possible to differentiate between them. The diversity is due to the existence of a different electronic environment around chemically different nuclei. Under an external magnetic field (B0), the electrons in the valence shell are affected; they start to circulate generating a magnetic field, which is apposite to the applied magnetic field. This effect is called diamagnetic shielding or diamagnetic anisotropy (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Schematic representation of diamagnetic anisotropy. Adapted from D. L. Pavia, G. M. Lampman, and G. S. Kriz, Introduction to Spectroscopy, 3th Ed., Thomson Learning, Tampa, FL, (2011).
Figure 1 (graphics1.png)

The greater the electron density around one specific nucleus, the greater will be the induced field that opposes the applied field, and this will result in a different resonance frequency. The identification of protons sounds simple, however, the NMR technique has a relatively low sensitivity of proton chemical shifts to changes in the chemical and stereochemical environment; as a consequence the resonance of chemically similar proton overlap. There are several methods that have been used to resolve this problem, such as: the use of higher frequency spectrometers or by the use of shift reagents as aromatic solvents or lanthanide complexes. The main issue with high frequency spectrometers is that they are very expensive, which reduces the number of institutions that can have access to them. In contrast, shift reagents work by reducing the equivalence of nuclei by altering their magnetic environment, and can be used on any NMR instrument. The simplest shift reagent is the one of different solvents, however problems with some solvents is that they can react with the compound under study, and also that these solvents usually just alter the magnetic environment of a small part of the molecule. Consequently, although there are several methods, most of the work has been done with lanthanide complexes.

The history of lanthanide shift reagents

The first significant induced chemical shift using paramagnetic ions was reported in 1969 by Conrad Hinckley (Figure 2), where he used bispyridine adduct of tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethylhepta-3,5-dionato)europium(III) (Eu(tmhd)3), better known as Eu(dpm)3, where dpm is the abbreviation of dipivaloyl- methanato, the chemical structure is shown in Figure 3. Hinckley used Eu(tmhd)3 on the 1H NMR spectrum of cholesterol from 347 – 2 Hz. The development of this new chemical method to improve the resolution of the NMR spectrum was the stepping-stone for the work of Jeremy Sanders and Dudley Williams, Figure 4 and Figure 5 respectively. They observed a significant increase in the magnitude of the induced shift after using just the lanthanide chelate without the pyridine complex. Sugesting that the pyridine donor ligands are in competition for the active sides of the lanthanide complex. The efficiency of Eu(tmhd)3 as a shift reagent was published by Sanders and Williams in 1970, where they showed a significant difference in the 1H NMR spectrum of n-pentanol using the shift reagent, see Figure 6.

Figure 2: Chemist Conrad Hinclley, Emeritus professor in Southern Illinois University..
Figure 2 (conrad.jpg)
Figure 3: Chemical structure of Eu(tmhd)3.
Figure 3 (graphics2.jpg)
Figure 4: British chemist Jeremy Keith Morris Sanders.
Figure 4 (sanders.jpg)
Figure 5: British chemist Dudley Williams (1937-2010).
Figure 5 (williams.jpg)
Figure 6: 1H NMR spectra of n-pentanol, (a) without the present of lanthanide reagents and (b) in the present of the lanthanide reagent Eu(tmhd)3. Adapted from Chem Reviews, 1973, 73, 553. Copyright: American Chemical Society 1973.
Figure 6 (Picture 9.png)

Analyzing the spectra in Figure 6 it is easy to see that with the use of Eu(tmhd)3 there is any overlap between peaks. Instead, the multiplets of each proton are perfectly clear. After these two publications the potential of lanthanide as shift reagents for NMR studies became a popular topic. Other example is the fluorinate version of Eu(dpm)3; (tris(7,7,-dimethyl-1,1,2,2,2,3,3-heptafluoroocta-7,7-dimethyl-4,6-dionato)europium(III), best known as Eu(fod)3, which was synthesized in 1971 by Rondeau and Sievers. This LSR presents better solubility and greater Lewis acid character, the chemical structure is show in Figure 7.

Figure 7: Chemical structure of (tris(7,7,-dimethyl-1,1,2,2,2,3,3-heptafluoroocta-7,7-dimethyl-4,6-dionato)europium(III).
Figure 7 (Picture 3.jpg)

Mechanism of inducement of chemical shift

Lanthanide atoms are Lewis acids, and because of that, they have the ability to cause chemical shift by the interaction with the basic sites in the molecules. Lanthanide metals are especially effective over other metals because there is a significant delocalization of the unpaired f electrons onto the substrate as a consequence of unpaired electrons in the f shell of the lanthanide. The lanthanide metal in the complexes interacts with the relatively basic lone pair of electrons of aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, amines and other functional groups within the molecule that have a relative basic lone pair of electrons, resulting in a NMR spectral simplification.

There are two possible mechanisms by which a shift can occur: shifts by contact and shifts by pseudocontact. The first one is a result of the transfer of electron spin density via covalent bond formation from the lanthanide metal ion to the associated nuclei. While the magnetic effects of the unpaired electron magnetic moment causes the pseudocontact shift. Lanthanide complexes give shifts primarily by the pseudocontact mechanism. Under this mechanism, there are several factors that influence the shift of a specific NMR peak. The principal factor is the distance between the metal ion and the proton; the shorter the distance, the greater the shift obtained. On the other hand, the direction of the shift depends on the lanthanide complex used. The complexes that produce a shift to a lower field (downfield) are the ones containing erbium, europium, thulium and ytterbium, while complexes with cerium, neodymium, holmium, praseodymium, samarium and terbium, shift resonances to higher field. Figure 6 shows the difference betwen an NMR spectrum without the use of shift reagent versus the same spectrum in the present of a europium complex (downfield shift) and a praseodymium complex (high-field shift).

Figure 8: (a) 1H NMR spectrum of n-hexanol without the present of shift reagents. (b) 1H NMR spectrum of n-hexanol in present of 14% Pr(fod)3 and the thirt spectrum (c) is the 1H NMR spectrum of n-hexanol in the present of 6.5% Eu(fod)3. Adapted from http://www.chem.wisc.edu/areas/reich/nmr/08-tech-07-lis.htm
Figure 8 (may.jpg)

Linewidth broadening is not desired because of loss of resolution, and lanthanide complexes unfortunately contribute extremely to this effect when they are used in high concentrations due to their mechanism that shortens the relaxation times (T2), which in turn increases the bandwidth. However europium and praseodymium are an extraordinary exception giving a very low shift broadening, 0.003 and 0.005 Hz/Hz respectively. Europium specially is the most used lanthanide as shift reagent because of its inefficient nuclear spin-lattice ratio properties. It has low angular momentum quantum numbers and a diamagnetic 7F0 ground state. These two properties contribute to a very small separation of the highest and lowest occupied metal orbitals leading to an inefficient relaxation and a very little broadening in the NMR spectra. The excited 7F1 state will then contribute to the pseudocontact shift.

We have mentioned above that lanthanide complexes have a mechanism that influences relaxation times, and this is certainly because paramagnetic ions have an influence in both: chemical shifts and relaxation rates. The relaxation times are of great significant because they depend on the width of a specific resonance (peak). Changes in relaxation time could also be related with the geometry of the complex.

Measuring the shift

The easiest and more practical way to measure the lanthanide-induced shift (LIS) is to add aliquots of the lanthanide shift reagent (LSR or Δvi) to the sample that has the compound of interest (substrate), and take an NMR spectra after each addition. Because the shift of each proton will change after each addition of the LSR to lower or upper field, the LIS can me measured. With the data collected, a plot of the LIS against the ratio of LSR: substrate will generate a straight line where the slope is representative of the compound that is being studied. The identification of the compound by the use of chiral lanthanide shift reagents can be so precise that it is possible to estimate the composition of enantiomers in the solution under study, see Figure 9.

Figure 9: Lanthanide induced shift of methoxyl proton resonance versus molar ratio of Eu(fod)3, for the diastereomeric MTPA esters. δ is the normal chemical shift and δE is the chemical shift in ppm for the OMe signal in the presence of a specified molar ratio of Eu(fod)3, in CCl4 as solvent. Adapted from S. Yamaguchi, F. Yasuhara and K. Kabuto, Tetrahedron, 1976, 32, 1363.
Figure 9 (Picture 6.png)

Now, what is the mechanism that is actually happening between the LSR and the compound under study? The LSR is a metal complex of six coordinate sides. The LSR, in presence of substrate that contains heteroatoms with Lewis basicity character, expands its coordination sides in solution in order to accept additional ligands. An equilibrium mixture is formed between the substrate and the LSR. Equation 1 and Equation 2 show the equilibrium, where L is LSR, S is the substrate, and LS is the concentration of the complex formed is solution.

Eq110.jpg
(1)
Eq111.jpg
(2)

The abundance of these species depends on K1 and K2, which are the binding constant. The binding constant is a special case of equilibrium constant, but it refers with the binding and unbinding mechanism of two species. In most of the cases like, K2 is assumed to be negligible and therefore just the first complex [LS] is assumed to be formed. The equilibrium between L + S and LS in solution is faster than the NMR timescale, consequently a single average signal will be recorded for each nucleus.

Determination of enantiomeric purity

Besides the great potential of lanthanide shift reagents to improve the resolution of NMR spectrums, these complexes also have been used to identify enantiomeric mixtures in solution. To make this possible the substrate must meet certain properties. The fist one is that the organic compounds in the enantiomeric composition must to have a hard organic base as functional group. The shift reagents are not effective with most of the soft bases. Though hundreds of chelates have been synthesized after Eu(dcm)3, this one is the LSR that resulted in the most effective reagent for the resolution of enantiotopic resonances. Basically if you take an NMR of an enantiomeric mixture sample, a big variety of peaks will appear and the hard part is to identify which of those peaks correspond to which specific enantiomer. The differences in chemical shifts observed for enantiomeric mixtures in solution containing LSR might arise from at least two sources: the equilibrium constants of the formation of the possible diastereometic complexes between the substrate and the LSR, and the geometries of these complexes, which might be distinct. The enantiomeric shift differences sometimes are defined as ΔΔδ.

In solution the exchange between substrate coordinated to the europium ion and the free substrate in solution is very fast. To be sure that the europium complexes are binding with one or two substrate molecules, an excess of substrate is usually added.

Biography

  • L. G. Wade, Jr., Organic Chemistry, 4th edn., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey (2006).
  • D. L. Pavia, G. M. Lampman, and G. S. Kriz, Introduction to Spectroscopy, 3th edn., Bellinghan, WA (2001).
  • J. B. Lambert and E. P. Mazzola, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey (2004).
  • C. C. Hinckley, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1969, 91, 5160.
  • J. K. M. Sanders and D. H. Williams, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 971, 93, 1641.
  • A. F. Cockerill, G. L. O. Davies, R. C. Harden, and D. M. Rackham, Chem. Rev., 1973, 73, 553.
  • B. C. Mayor, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1969, 91, 49.
  • S. Yamaguchi, F. Yasuhara, and K. Kabuto, Tetrahedron, 1976, 32, 1363.

Collection Navigation

Content actions

Download:

Collection as:

PDF | More downloads ...

Module as:

PDF | EPUB (?)

What is an EPUB file?

EPUB is an electronic book format that can be read on a variety of mobile devices.

Downloading to a reading device

For detailed instructions on how to download this content's EPUB to your specific device, click the "(?)" link.

| More downloads ...

Add:

Collection to:

My Favorites (?)

'My Favorites' is a special kind of lens which you can use to bookmark modules and collections. 'My Favorites' can only be seen by you, and collections saved in 'My Favorites' can remember the last module you were on. You need an account to use 'My Favorites'.

| A lens I own (?)

Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags? tag icon

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

| External bookmarks

Module to:

My Favorites (?)

'My Favorites' is a special kind of lens which you can use to bookmark modules and collections. 'My Favorites' can only be seen by you, and collections saved in 'My Favorites' can remember the last module you were on. You need an account to use 'My Favorites'.

| A lens I own (?)

Definition of a lens

Lenses

A lens is a custom view of the content in the repository. You can think of it as a fancy kind of list that will let you see content through the eyes of organizations and people you trust.

What is in a lens?

Lens makers point to materials (modules and collections), creating a guide that includes their own comments and descriptive tags about the content.

Who can create a lens?

Any individual member, a community, or a respected organization.

What are tags? tag icon

Tags are descriptors added by lens makers to help label content, attaching a vocabulary that is meaningful in the context of the lens.

| External bookmarks