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Name: Characteristics and Traits
ID: m44478
Language: English (en)
Summary: By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Explain the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes in dominant and recessive gene systems
  • Develop a Punnett square to calculate the expected proportions of genotypes and phenotypes in a monohybrid cross
  • Explain the purpose and methods of a test cross
  • Identify non-Mendelian inheritance patterns such as incomplete dominance, codominance, recessive lethals, multiple alleles, and sex linkage
Subject: Science and Technology
Keywords: allele, characteristic, codominance, dominant lethal, dominant phenotype, genetics, genotype, Gregor Mendel, hemizygous, heredity, heterozygous, homozygous, incomplete dominance, lethality, Mendel, monohybrid, monohybrid cross, multiple alleles, mutant, pedigree analysis, phenotype, polygenic inheritance, Punnett square, recessive gene, recessive lethal, sex linkage, sex-linked trait, test cross, trait, wild type, X linkage, X-linked trait
License: Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0

Authors: OpenStax College (
Copyright Holders: Rice University (
Maintainers: OpenStax College (, Cnx Biology (

Latest version: 1.5 (history)
First publication date: Aug 23, 2012 11:15 am -0500
Last revision to module: Feb 24, 2014 4:17 pm -0600


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Version History

Version: 1.5 Feb 24, 2014 4:17 pm -0600 by Cnx Biology
revised images (errata)

Version: 1.4 Jun 26, 2013 10:35 am -0500 by Cnx Biology
WIley changes

Version: 1.3 Apr 10, 2013 1:00 pm -0500 by Cnx Biology
Fixed Concept In Action link, replaced "multiple choice" with "review questions"

Version: 1.2 Mar 11, 2013 10:55 am -0500 by Cnx Biology
migration spreadsheet changes

Version: 1.1 Aug 28, 2012 3:40 pm -0500 by Cnx Biology
Created module

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