OpenStax CNX

You are here: Home » Content » Stems

About: Stems

Module by: OpenStax College. E-mail the author

View the content: Stems


Name: Stems
ID: m44702
Language: English (en)
Summary: By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the main function and basic structure of stems
  • Compare and contrast the roles of dermal tissue, vascular tissue, and ground tissue
  • Distinguish between primary growth and secondary growth in stems
  • Summarize the origin of annual rings
  • List and describe examples of modified stems
Subject: Science and Technology
Keywords: annual ring, apical bud, axillary bud, bulb, collenchyma cell, corm, cortex, dermal tissue, ground tissue, guard cell, internode, lenticel, modified stem, node, parenchyma cell, periderm, pith, plant form, plant physiology, plants, primary growth, rhizome, runner, sclerenchyma cell, secondary growth, sieve-tube cell, stem, stem anatomy, stem growth, stem modifications, stolon, tendril, thorn, tracheid, trichome, tuber, vascular tissue, vessel element
License: Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 3.0

Authors: OpenStax College (
Copyright Holders: Rice University (
Maintainers: OpenStax College (, Cnx Biology (

Latest version: 1.5 (history)
First publication date: Aug 23, 2012 2:54 pm -0500
Last revision to module: May 10, 2013 11:51 am -0500


PDF: m44702_1.5.pdf PDF file, for viewing content offline and printing. Learn more.
XML: m44702_1.5.cnxml XML that defines the structure and contents of the module, minus any included media files. Can be reimported in the editing interface. Learn more.

Version History

Version: 1.5 May 10, 2013 11:51 am -0500 by Cnx Biology
wiley changes round 2

Version: 1.4 Apr 12, 2013 11:02 am -0500 by Cnx Biology
replaced "multiple choice" with "review questions"

Version: 1.3 Mar 16, 2013 3:51 pm -0500 by Cnx Biology
fixed links and summary

Version: 1.2 Feb 19, 2013 2:23 pm -0600 by Cnx Biology
migration spreadsheet changes

Version: 1.1 Aug 30, 2012 11:27 am -0500 by Cnx Biology
Created module

How to Reuse and Attribute This Content

If you derive a copy of this content using a OpenStax-CNX account and publish your version, proper attribution of the original work will be automatically done for you.

If you reuse this work elsewhere, in order to comply with the attribution requirements of the license (CC-BY 3.0), you must include

  • the authors' names: OpenStax College
  • the title of the work: Stems
  • the OpenStax-CNX URL where the work can be found:

See the citation section below for examples you can copy.

How to Cite and Attribute This Content

The following citation styles comply with the attribution requirements for the license (CC-BY 3.0) of this work:

American Chemical Society (ACS) Style Guide:

OpenStax College. Stems, OpenStax-CNX Web site., May 10, 2013.

American Medical Assocation (AMA) Manual of Style:

OpenStax College. Stems [OpenStax-CNX Web site]. May 10, 2013. Available at:

American Psychological Assocation (APA) Publication Manual:

OpenStax College. (2013, May 10). Stems. Retrieved from the OpenStax-CNX Web site:

Chicago Manual of Style (Bibliography):

OpenStax College. "Stems." OpenStax-CNX. May 10, 2013.

Chicago Manual of Style (Note):

OpenStax College, "Stems," OpenStax-CNX, May 10, 2013,

Chicago Manual of Style (Reference, in Author-Date style):

OpenStax College. 2013. Stems. OpenStax-CNX, May 10, 2013.

Modern Languages Association (MLA) Style Manual:

OpenStax College. Stems. OpenStax-CNX. 10 May 2013 <>.