`m`

prefix is used to
denote tags in the MathML namespace. Thus the
`<apply>`

tag is referred to as
`<m:apply>`

. Remember all markup in
the MathML namespace must be surrounded by
`<m:math>`

tags.
```
```
2
3
]]>

This would display as
`apply`

tag, which indicates that an operator (or function) is about
to be applied to the operands. Second, there is the function
or operator to be applied. In this case the operator,
`plus`

, is being applied. Third, the operands
follow the operator. In this case the operands are the
numbers being added. In summary, the apply tag applies the
function (which could be sin or
`ci`

,
`cn`

, and `csymbol`

. A
`ci`

elements can contain
Presentation MathML. Tokens, especially `ci`

and
`cn`

, are used profusely in Content MathML.
Every number, variable, or function is marked by a token.
`ci`

and `cn`

. It is used to create a
new object whose semantics is defined externally. It can
contain plain text or Presentation MathML. If you find that
you need something, such as an operator or function, that is
not defined in Content MathML, then you can use csymbol to
create it.
`ci`

and `csymbol`

can use
Presentation MathML to determine how an identifier or a new
symbol will be rendered. To learn more about Presentation
MathML see Section 3
of the MathML 2.0 Specification. For example, to
denote "```
```
x
2
]]>

This would display as
`ci`

elements have a type attribute which
can be used to provide more information about the content of
the element. For example, you can declare the contents of a
`ci`

tag to be a function
(`type='fn'`

), or a vector
(`type='vector'`

), or a complex number
(`type='complex'`

), as well as any number of
other things. Using the type attribute helps encode the
meaning of the math that you are writing.
`type='fn'`

on the
`ci`

tag denoting
```
```
f
x
]]>

This will display as
```
```
x
]]>

This will display as
`plus`

(for addition), `minus`

(for subtraction),
`times`

(for multiplication), `divide`

(for division), `power`

(for taking the
```
```
x
]]>

This will display as
```
```-1 ]]>

This will display as ```
```
a
b
c
]]>

This will display as
`eq`

operator is used to write equations. It
is used in the same way as any other operator. That is, it
is the first child of an apply. It takes two (or more)
children which are the two quantities that are equal to each
other. For example, "```
```
a
b
a
c
a
b
c
]]>

This will display as
`int`

. However,
unlike the operators and functions discussed above, it has
children that define the independent variable that you
integrate with respect to (`bvar`

) and the interval
over which the integral is taken (use either
`lowlimit`

and `uplimit`

, or
`interval`

, or `condition`

).
`lowlimit`

and `uplimit`

(which go
together), `interval`

, and `condition`

are just three different ways of denoting the integrands.
Don't forget that the bvar, `lowlimit`

,
`uplimit`

, `interval`

, and
`condition`

children take token elements as well.
The following is "the integral of
```
```
x
0
b
f
x
]]>

This will display as
`diff`

. The derivative
is done in much the same way as the integral. That is, you
need to define a base variable (using `bvar`

). The
following is "the derivative of the function
```
```
x
f
x
]]>

This will display as
`degree`

tag inside of the `bvar`

tag.
The degree tag will contain the order of the derivative. The
following shows "the second derivative of the function
```
```
x
2
f
x
]]>

This will display as
`vector`

tag.
```
```
x
y
z
0
]]>

This will display as
`matrix`

element contains several
`matrixrow`

elements. Then each
`matrixrow`

element contains several other
elements.
```
```
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
j
]]>

This will display as